ALL  ABOUT  BERNICE  SANDLER

Bernice R. Sandler
Senior Scholar, Women's Research and Education Institute
1350 Connecticut Avenue, Suite 850, Washington, DC 20036
Phone: 202 833 3331   Fax: 202 785 5605
E-mail:  sandler@bernicesandler.com


A SHORT SUMMARY

CURRICULUM VITAE





A LIST OF "FIRSTS"



EDUCATION
GENERAL BACKGROUND
TESTIMONY BEFORE CONGRESS
PARTIAL LIST OF AWARDS
SERVICE ON BOARDS




SEXUAL HARASSMENT
TITLE IX
CHILLY CLIMATE
EXPERT WITNESS


FOR A LIST OF SANDLER'S PUBLICATIONS, CLICK HERE.

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Short Summary

  A SHORT SUMMARY



Dr. Bernice R. Sandler is a Senior Scholar at the Women’s Research and Education Institute in Washington, DC, where she consults with institutions and others about achieving equity for women and is an Adjunct Associate Professor at Drexel University College of Medicine. She formerly wrote a quarterly newsletter, About Women on Campus. She has given over 2500 presentations, has written more than 100 articles and is well-known for her expertise in women’s educational equity in general as well as in sexual harassment, the chilly classroom climate, and her knowledge of policies, programs and strategies concerning women on campus. She also serves as an expert witness in discrimination and sexual harassment cases.

She previously directed the Project on the Status and Education of Women at the Association of American Colleges where she published more that one hundred reports. She has a long list of firsts such as the first reports on campus sexual harassment, gang rape, campus peer harassment, and the chilly climate for women, including the first report on how men and women are treated differently in the classroom. She was the first person appointed to a Congressional committee staff to work specifically on women’s issues and the first person to testify before a Congressional committee about discrimination against women in education. Back in the 1970’s she filed the first charges of sex discrimination against more than 250 institutions at a time when there were no laws prohibiting sex discrimination in education.

She played a major role in the development and passage of Title IX and other laws prohibiting sex discrimination in education, and has been associated with Title IX longer than any other person. The New York Times has referred to her as the “godmother of Title IX.”

Sandler holds a degree in counseling from the University of Maryland . She was the first Chair of the now-defunct National Advisory Council on Women’s Educational Programs, having been appointed by Presidents Ford and Carter. She has taught counseling, and has worked as a psychologist, a research assistant, a nursery school teacher, a guitar instructor, and like many women, a secretary.

She has served on more than thirty boards, has ten honorary doctorates and numerous other awards. She has been quoted in major media such as the New York Times, Time, Newsweek and Sports Illustrated, and has appeared on many talk shows including The Today Show, Larry King Live, and Good Morning America. In 1994 she received a Century of Women Special Achievement Award from Turner Broadcasting System. Her books include: The Chilly Classroom Climate: A Guide to Improve the Education of Women with Lisa A. Silverberg and Roberta M. Hall, and Sexual Harassment on Campus: A Guide for Administrators, Faculty and Students with Robert J. Shoop. A new book, Peer Sexual Harassment, K-12, with Harriett Stonehill, will be published shortly by Scarecrow Press.

She also consulted with The Citadel on their “female assimilation plan,” and is currently working on a book involving student-to-student harassment from kindergarten to 12th grade, and served on the Women’s Health Initiative Advisory Board of the Bayer Corporation.

  CURRICULUM VITAE

  

EDUCATION:
            
B.A. cum laude, Brooklyn College, Brooklyn  New York.  Major:  psychology

M.A. Clinical and School Psychology, College of the City of New York, NYC, NY

Ed.D. Counseling and Personnel Services, University of Maryland
  


I. GENERAL BACKGROUND IN HIGHER EDUCATION

2000-current:  Senior Scholar, Women's Research and Education Institute, Washington, D.C. and self-employed.  Adjunct Associate Professor, MCP Hahnemann School of Medicine.

Consult with, give presentations and workshops, and provide training and assistance at colleges and universities about educational equity for women around a wide range of issues, concerning policies, strategies, practices, and model programs.  Have given over 2000 presentations on issues such as:

   Faculty recruitment, hiring, retention, promotion, tenure and strategies

   Mentoring, including programs, policies, and institutional and individual strategiesSexual harassment, including student-to-student harassment and institutional and individual strategies

   Sexual harassment, including student-to-student harassment and institutional and individual strategies

   Title IX  and Title VII

   Chilly climate issues, including how teachers treat men and women students differently, and institutional and individual strategies

   Teaching strategies to increase women's classroom participation

   Institutional strategies for change

   Individual strategies for success and survival

   Improving evaluation procedures for women faculty members

   Evaluation of women's campus status

   Sexual assault, including prevention programs, policies and how to deal with it

   Returning women students

   Women in science and other non-traditional fields

Expertise with general workplace issues concerning equity and discrimination, including
employment and sexual harassment.

Speak at conferences, usually giving major addresses to groups such as the Commission on Institutional Cooperation (CIC), National Science Foundation conference concerning teaching, the American Council on Education National Identification Program, The Women in Engineering Program Advocates Network, Michigan Network of Women's Centers, New York Law School conference on single-sex education, and others.

Have also given presentations and workshops on gender equity at the institutions such as: University of Manitoba, Villanova University, Duke University, U.S. Coast Guard Academy, Purdue University, University of Washington, University of South Carolina, Marshall University, University of Maine at Farmington, University of Southern Maine, University of Nebraska at Lincoln, Rice University, University of Chicago and Georgetown University Law School.

Am familiar with virtually all areas of women's equity in education, including nontraditional employment for women and where women are a small minority.  For example, I served on an advisory panel of a mentoring project of the Association for Women in Science; I have spoken at meetings of the Women in Engineering Program Advocates Network, and have spoken and written about women in science and engineering.

1990-current:  Expert witness in discrimination and sexual harassment cases in higher education and in the general workplace.  (Case list available on request.)

1991-99:  Editor:  About Women on Campus, NAWE's former quarterly newsletter.

1994-2000:  Senior Scholar in Residence, National Association for Women in Education (NAWE) and self-employed. Activities similar to those in my current position at the Women's Research and Education Institute.

1991-1994:  Senior Associate, Center for Women Policy Studies, Washington, DC, and self-employed.  Activities similar to those in my current position at the Women's Research and Education Institute.

1971-1991:  Executive Associate and Director of the Project on the Status and Education of Women, Association of American Colleges and Universities, Washington, DC.

Directed the first national project on women in higher education.  Provided assistance to colleges and universities throughout the country on equity issues involving women as students, staff, faculty and administrators.  

Editor:  On Campus With Women, a quarterly newsletter.  Wrote or supervised the writing of more than 100 reports, including the first reports on campus sexual harassment, campus gang rape, campus peer harassment, and the chilly climate for women, including the first report on how men and women are treated differently in the classrooms.  

Analyzed and summarized new legislation and federal regulations concerning women. Identified emerging issues and trends, resources and relevant litigation.

Provided help to administrators and faculty by telephone, letter, and visits to campuses where I made presentations, conducted workshops, analyzed policies and programs, and met with administrators, faculty and students.  Provided information to press and appeared on television and radio.

1975-1982:  Appointed by Presidents Ford and Carter to the National Advisory Council on Women's Educational Programs.  Served as Chair (1975-77).  Under my direction the first federal report on sexual harassment in higher education and the first report on the education of rural women were written, as well as reports analyzing federal policies affecting women and girls in education.

1971:  Deputy director, Women's Action Program, Department of Health, Education and Welfare.  Analyzed sex discrimination in education and wrote education section of first report with policy recommendations about women and girls in education for the Secretary of the department.  This was the first federal report describing discrimination against women in education.

1970:  Education Specialist, Special Subcommittee on Education, Committee on Education and Labor, U.S. House of Representatives.  First person appointed as a staff member to a Congressional Committee to work specifically on women's issues.  Put together the first hearings on women in employment and education.  These hearings led to the passage of Title IX of the Education Amendments of 1972 and other laws prohibiting sex discrimination in employment and education.

1969-71:  Chair, Action Committee for Federal Contract Compliance, Women's Equity Action League (WEAL).  Conceived and implemented strategy to require the federal government to enforce existing executive orders (which prohibited organizations holding federal contracts from discriminating). Filed the first charges of sex discrimination against more than 250 universities and colleges. Played a major role in the development and passage of Title IX which prohibits sex discrimination in educatonal programs.

Prior to 1970:  Part-time visiting lecturer at the University of Maryland; instructor at Mt. Vernon College; research assistant at the University of Maryland, nursery school teacher, guitar instructor, census taker, and secretary.
  
TESTIMONY BEFORE CONGRESS

Testified before 13 Congressional committees including the first testimony in 1970 specifically
about discrimination against women in higher education.
  
PARTIAL LIST OF AWARDS

Ten honorary degrees, most recent in 1998

Leadership Matters Award, Institute for Educational Leadership, 1997

Woman of Achievement, Turner Broadcasting System, 1994

Georgina Smith Award, American Association of University Professors, 1991

Woman of Distinction Award, National Association for Women in Education, 1991

Anna Roe Award, Harvard University, 1988

Named one of the nation's 100 most important women, Ladies Home Journal

Included in numerous biographical listings such as Who's Who of American Women, The International Who's Who of Women, and Who's Who in America
  
SERVICE ON BOARDS

Have served on over thirty boards, most dealing with women in education.  Have served on two boards dealing with women's health issues.

MEDIA:

Am frequently quoted in national press, including The Washington Post and The New York Times. Provide information to press, including radio, television and print media.  Have appeared on numerous national and local television and radio shows, including Larry King Live and Good Morning America.

Profiled in the February/March 2001 issue of Ms. magazine with "The Little Law That Could," a fresh look at the groundbreaking Title IX.

  


II. BACKGROUND IN SEXUAL HARASSMENT TRAINING, AND
POLICY DEVELOPMENT

Among the institutions at which I have given presentations and workshops concerning sexual harassment are The Citadel, Emory University, MCP Hahnemann School of Medicine, Jackson Community College, State University of New York at Albany, Princeton University, University of Maine at Orono, Saint Mary's University (Canada), Columbus State Community College, Grand Valley State College, Pennsylvania State University, Gettysburg College, and College of the Ozarks, Montgomery College, George Mason University, SUNY-Purchase, and St. Michael's College.  (Most of these on-site visits involved workshops and presentations on other subjects as well.)

TRAINING ACTIVITIES

   Conduct workshops and training for faculty, staff, administrators and supervisors at all levels, students, and for personnel whose responsibility includes handling of sexual harassment issues.  Training ranges from small meetings, one hour presentations and lectures to all-day interactive workshops.  Have worked with groups of all sizes, ranging from small to several hundred people.  Have also trained personnel from all areas of the institution (faculty, staff and administrators) as well as those who are responsible for training others.

   Consult with administrators and supervisors, student life personnel, members of committees on sexual harassment, legal counsel, members of boards of trustees, campus women's organizations, victim advocates, students leaders, and dormitory resident assistants.

   Have spoken at numerous conferences as keynote speaker and at panels, such as the International Conference on Sexual Assault and Harassment on Campus, and conferences sponsored by the Association of Governing Boards of Colleges and Universities, the Canadian Association Against Sexual Harassment in Higher Education and the Northeast Interfraternity and Panhellenic Conference.

   Content of workshops, training, and speeches has covered almost all areas of sexual harassment such as:

What sexual harassment is and isn't

Legal issues

Policy issues

Prevention programs and materials

How to deal with harassment both formally and informally

How to intervene

Conducting investigations of sexual harassment complaints

Trends and new developments and resources, including student-to-student harassment

   Have spoken to law organizations and groups as part of continuing education credits including bar association conferences and at employment seminars at Georgetown University Law School (1998,1999).

   Design handouts for training.

   Work with educational institutions on the development of training programs for their staff.

EXPERIENCE WITH SEXUAL HARASSMENT POLICY

   Work with educational institutions on the development, evaluation and review of institutional policies.  Additionally, I often analyze and review sexual harassment policies as an integral part of campus visits involving sexual harassment training or presentations.  I played a major role in the development of the revised sexual harassment policy and program at The Citadel.

   Have written about policies, including a definitive article, "Elements of a Good Policy" (in Sexual Harassment on Campus:  A Guide for Administrators, Faculty and Students, edited by myself and Robert J. Shoop) which describes and discusses 21 key elements and discusses issues such as confidentiality, record-keeping, liability issues, freedom of speech issues and how to deal with sexual harassment both informally and formally.  

   Am the major author of a "notebook" for a loose-leaf service concerning all aspects of sexual harassment in educational institutions (Educators' Guide to Controlling Sexual Harassment) and which included comprehensive sections on policies, dealing with complaints, and the development of preventive programs.  I was also commissioned by the Association of Governing Boards of Universities and Colleges to write a publication, Sexual Harassment and Date Rape concerning policy issues for boards of trustees' members.  For full details, see the Publications section of this web site.

   Have written a sexual harassment section on policy issues and other developments for a quarterly newsletter from the mid-1970's to 1999.

   Have spoken about policy issues at national conferences.

GENERAL KNOWLEDGE OF SEXUAL HARASSMENT AND SEXUAL ASSAULT ISSUES

   Have written extensively on sexual harassment, starting with the first national report on campus sexual harassment (1979), and including co-editing of Sexual Harassment on Campus:  A Guide for Administrators, Faculty and Students (1997).  For full details and other items, see the Publications section of this web site.

   Monitored sexual harassment issues such as programs, trends, and legal developments, in order to write a section about campus sexual harassment for a quarterly newsletter since the mid-1970's to 1999.

   Provide informal assistance (usually by e-mail, phone or letter) to educational institutions and individuals with information about sexual harassment upon request.

   Consult in the development of training videos concerning sexual harassment (most recently, No Real Winners:  Sexual Harassment in Academe produced for United Educators Insurance Risk Retention Group, 1996).

   Have worked on issues involving sexual assault (which in both the workplace and educational environment can in some instances be an extreme form of sexual harassment).  For full details, see the Sexual Harassment and Assault section of this web site.

   Have consulted and trained campus officials and students re sexual assault issues, policies, programs, and how to prevent and deal with it.

   Have written about sexual assault, including the first report on campus gang rape (1985).  For full details, see the Publications section of this website.

   Followed current sexual assault issues such as programs, trends, legal developments, for a section about campus violence for a quarterly newsletter from the mid-1970's to 1999.

   Provide informal assistance (usually by e-mail, phone or letter) to educational institutions and individuals with information about sexual assault upon request.

EXPERIENCE IN ISSUES INVOLVING STUDENT-TO-STUDENT (PEER) SEXUAL HARASSMENT

   Co-authored (with Jeanne Hughes) the first national report (1982) on peer harassment. Titled Peer Harassment:  Hassles for Women on Campus, the report documents and discusses student-to-student harassment and includes more than 60 recommendations for educational institutions.  

   Conduct training sessions for educational institutions including administrators, student life personnel, students and others concerning peer harassment among students.  Many of the workshops and presentations I have conducted about sexual harassment include peer harassment.  Presented a session on peer harassment to members of the Contra Costa (CA) Bar Association for continuing education credit.

   Monitored student-to-student harassment issues such as programs, trends, legal developments, and computer harassment in order to provide information for a quarterly newsletter.

   Worked with staff to develop comprehensive policy and training concerning cadet-to-cadet harassment at The Citadel.

   Provide informal assistance (usually by e-mail, phone or letter) to educational institutions and individuals with information about peer harassment upon request.

   Consulted with the Roads to Respect Program, a middle school training program for students concerning student-to-student sexual harassment, developed by the Santa Monica Rape Treatment Center, UCLA Medical Center.

   Am listed as one of a number of experts on a "friend of the court" brief filed with the U.S. Supreme Court (Davis v. Monroe), the first case to reach the Court involving student-to-student harassment.  My writings on sexual harassment were also quoted in other briefs submitted to the Court in this case and others.

  


III. FAMILIARITY WITH TITLE IX AND TITLE VII
   1969-current:  Have worked with Title IX longer than any other person.

   1969-72:  Developed and organized a successful national campaign to press for the development and passage of Title IX and other laws to end sex discrimination in education.

   1970:  Helped put together the Congressional hearings describing educational inequities and which led to the passage of Title IX of the Education Amendments of 1972 and the amendment of Title VII of the Civil Rights Act to cover sex discrimination in educational institutions (which previously had been exempt).  Testified at the Title IX hearings and others related to legislation concerning sex discrimination in education.

   1970:  Appointed as education specialist to the U.S. House of Representatives Special Subcommittee on Education to organize the Title IX hearings into a two-volume record.

   1971-1980:  Played a major role in working as a member of the National Coalition for Women and Girls to bring about the development and publication of the Title IX regulation and to monitor its enforcement.  The Coalition met with officials of the Dept. of Health, Education and Welfare (later the Dept. of Education), White House staff, and other federal officials to discuss the shape and direction of the regulation.  Reviewed and commented on drafts.

   1970-1999:  Monitored current Title IX and Title VII issues such as programs, trends, and legal developments for coverage in a quarterly newsletter.  

   Wrote and published several articles on Title IX and Title VII including summaries of Title IX, the Title IX Restoration Act, Title IX regulation, the first chart comparing Title IX and Title VII and other federal statutes prohibiting sexual discrimination in education, and other articles about what institutions are required to do, Title IX implications for single sex activities, sexual harassment, athletics, and a history of Title IX.  For full details, see the Publications section of this website.

   1995 -1997:  Member of Sexual Harassment Task Force of the National Coalition for Women and Girls in Education which worked with Office for Civil Rights on their publication Sexual Harassment Guidance:  Harassment of Students by School Employees, Other Students or Third Parties, (1997).  A major part concerned the application of Title IX to student-to-student harassment.  Participated in meetings with OCR staff and reviewed and commented on drafts of the Guidance.

   Provide informal assistance (usually by e-mail, phone or letter) to educational institutions and individuals with information about Title IX and Title VII upon request.

   Speak on Title IX issues at campuses.
  


IV. EXPERIENCE WITH CHILLY CLIMATE ISSUES
   1982:  Co-authored, with Roberta M. Hall, the first report on how faculty members often unknowingly treat women and men are treated differently in the classroom.  The report, The Classroom Climate:  A Chilly One For Women, coined the term "chilly climate." More than 40,000 copies were distributed and sold.

   Wrote additional reports on the chilly climate for students outside of the classroom, and the chilly climate for women administrators, faculty members, and graduate students.

   Directed a two-year project on how women students are treated differently than men in the classroom, funded by the Fund for the Improvement of Postsecondary Education (FIPSE) and which culminated in The Chilly Classroom Climate:  A Guide to Improve the Education of Women.  The book was distributed free to the president of every college in the country (1996), and includes over 260 recommendations for administrators, faculty and students.  For full details, see the Publications section of this website.

   Conduct workshops, give presentations to administrators, faculty and students concerning the chilly climate for women as students and as employees.  Provide institutional and individual strategies for dealing with the chilly climate, including pedagogical strategies for faculty members to increase women's participation and reduce differential gender treatment, and to help faculty members deal with the chilly climate for women faculty.  About half of my presentations are related to the chilly climate.

   Provide leadership training related to the chilly climate for administrators or aspiring administrators.  Speak at conferences and meetings such as the Institute for Emerging Women Leaders of the Women's Research and Education Institute, Women Administrators in Higher Education, and the Maine Academic Management Institute.

  

V. EXPERT WINESS EXPERIENCE
   Have served as an expert witness in over 25 cases involving discrimination and/or harassment of administrators, faculty and students, as well as general employment cases involving sexual harassment.  As an expert witness, I consult with attorneys, analyze patterns of discrimination and harassment, write comprehensive reports, give depositions, and testify.

   Author of "10 Ways Expert Witnesses Can be Used in Sex Discrimination and Sexual Harassment Cases," 1997.  For full details, see the Publications section of this website.

   Occasionally address bar associations and a few years ago addressed the DC Metropolitan Employment Lawyers Association on the use of expert witnesses.

   Have been a witness in more than 25 cases involving sex discrimination and sexual harassment against students, faculty and employees, both in and out of academe, such as the DC Metropolitan Police, Watergate Hotel, Skytel, National Geographic, U.S. Postal Service, and the U.S. Department of State.  Case list is available on request.



VI. A LIST OF "FIRSTS"
   Have continually been on the cutting edge of issues involving women in education, with a long list of "firsts", such as being the following:

   First person to realize (1970) that a federal Executive Order prohibiting contractors from discriminating in employment could be used to combat sex discrimination in colleges and universities. Sandler filed the first charges of campus sex discrimination against more than 250 institutions (1970-71) under this Executive Order, at a time when no federal laws prohibited sex discrimination in education. (She planned and spearheaded the strategy that led to the first federal investigation of campus sex discrimination.) Her work documenting campus discrimination convinced Representative Edith Green (Dem., OR) to introduce legislation that eventually became Title IX and to hold hearings on sex discrimination in education and employment--hearings that Sandler helped put together. Sandler subsequently played a major role in the development and passage of Title IX, the law prohibiting sex discrimination in institutions receiving federal funds, and has been involved with Title IX longer than any other person. She is often called the "mother of Title IX" by those familiar with how the law was enacted.


   First person to testify before a Congressional committee specifically about discrimination against women in education(1970).


   First person appointed to a Congressional committee staff to work specifically on women's issues (1970). She prepared the two-volume record of the hearings held by Representative Green, the first federal document detailing discrimination against women in academe and in other employment. The hearings lead to the passage of numerous laws prohibiting sex discrimination in education, including Title IX.


   Wrote the first federal policy report on sex discrimination in education (1971) as part of a larger report prepared by the Women's Action Program for the Secretary of the then Department of Health, Education and Welfare.


   First chair of the first federal advisory committee on women's educational equity, the National Advisory Council on Women's Educational Equity (1975). Appointed by Presidents Ford and Carter. Under Sandler's direction the first federal reports on sexual harassment in colleges and universities, and on the education of rural women were published.



   First director of the first national project examining discrimination against women (1971), the Project on the Status and Education of Women at the Association of American Colleges and Universities where she published more than one hundred reports, many of which were the first to be written on particular subjects. Some examples follow: (those with an asterisk were written or co-authored by Sandler):


   *The first national newsletter dealing with discrimination against women in higher education (1971-91).


   The first set of papers on women of color in higher education (1974).


   *The first chart analyzing and comparing the major sex discrimination laws covering educational institutions (1972). The chart was posted in campus offices across the country, reprinted by the Chronicle of Higher Education, distributed by the Department of Education in its training sessions, and helped educators and others understand the laws concerning education and sex discrimination. The chart was revised and updated several times.


   *The first analysis of Title IX as it applied to single-sex programs and organizations on campus (1975).


   *The first analysis of the Age Discrimination Act as it applies to older women on campus(1975).


   *The first national report on sexual harassment in academe (1978).


   The first comprehensive analysis of Title IX and discrimination against women in intercollegiate athletics and sport (1978).




   A fifteen-paper series (1980-81) to help institutions recruit and retain older women students which included:


   The first paper exploring the relationship between returning women students and the availability of child care.


   The first paper dealing with women returning to graduate school, and,


   The first paper about barriers faced by women of color and from other special population groups.




   * The first report on the chilly classroom climate (1982) describing how men and women are treated differently in the classroom. This was the first use of the term "chilly climate" to describe how small behaviors, seemingly unimportant by themselves, can permeate an environment, such as a classroom where they have a deleterious impact on women's participation, ambitions, and self-esteem. This work led to the writing of a book on the topic, The Chilly Classroom Climate: A Guide to Improve the Education of Women, by Bernice R. Sandler, Lisa A Silverberg and Roberta M. Hall.

Additional reports documented the chilly climate for students outside the classroom (as in advising, internships, support services and residential life, 1984, and the chilly climate for women faculty and administrators, 1986.



   * The first report to examine how the procedures used to nominate and award campus prizes could inadvertently exclude women (1982).


   * The first report on how impact statements can help foundations assess their programs for their impact on women and girls (1984).


   The first report on campus gang rape (1985).


   * The first report on peer harassment (1988), describing how male students harass female students.


   * The first report to provide search committees with questions to ascertain whether prospective faculty members and administrators were supportive of equity issues for women (1988).


   The first reports describing the chilly climate faced by African-American and Hispanic women on campus (1989, 1990).


   * The first report on how male and female students create a chilly climate for women faculty (1993).



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